HYDRATION SPORTS SCIENCE

/HYDRATION SPORTS SCIENCE

HEAT Sport Sciences, Inc. (HSS) is intensely focused on the unmet needs of the serious athlete.  All of our products and services are based on over a decade of research, and rigorously tested and validated at the highest levels of sport to maintain peak athlete performance and to address heat-related illnesses.

HSS is dedicated to developing proven performance-enhancement solutions that are healthy, all-natural & preferred by elite athletes. Our Athlete Sweat Test determines your unique hydration needs, and our LEVELEN™ Electrolyte products assure optimal performance through fluid & electrolyte balance.

We are the leaders in Hydration Sports Science.

#HydrationSportsScience

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

General Questions

Why Should I Get A Sweat Test?

Based on over 15 years of research, and data on thousands of athletes across numerous sports, athletes simply don’t sweat the same. General hydration guidelines are just that, general, and aren’t useful for helping the athlete determine their unique fluid and electrolyte needs. Your Sweat Profile is uniquely yours, and could differ dramatically from another (over a hundred fold), even if they have a similar diet, body type, size, etc. There are no metrics that can accurately predict what your hydration needs are, which is why a Sweat Test is so essential for those seeking to optimize their performance and minimize heat-related illnesses like heat exhaustion, hyponatremia, and muscle cramping.

Our Testing Kit is self-administered, and provides us enough information to determine your unique hydration and electrolyte needs, down to the milligram.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

What Are Electrolytes? How Do They Help Me?

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are essentially salts that can carry an electrical charge. The cells in your body rely on electrolytes to control cell membrane stability and to carry the electrical charges needed for muscle contractions caused by nerve impulses. Without electrolytes, the cells in your body couldn’t communicate with each other or perform these essential functions.

Adequate function of the nervous, cardiac, digestive and muscular systems all depend on a proper balance of electrolyte levels. Both normal body function, and athletic performance, are severely compromised if adequate levels of electrolytes are not present, especially in the heat.

One of the most obvious (and painful) signs of electrolyte loss is muscle cramping. But, muscle cramping is usually a sign that you missed your chance to maintain a proper electrolyte balance. Cramping is one of your body’s last warnings that it cannot continue normal muscle function without electrolyte replenishment. By the time you feel cramping, your performance has already been diminished for some time.

The problem can get worse than just muscle cramping. When your muscles cramp, this is caused by over-excited positive power charges in muscle cells, struggling to do their job with depleted electrolytes, just like a light flickering before it burns out. Severe and sustained muscle contractions caused by these unpredictable power surges can cause muscle pulls or strains, as your muscles involuntarily contract. These severe, sustained and involuntary muscle contractions can not only result in muscle damage but will decrease performance or disrupt exercise entirely. Maintenance of your electrolyte balance can help avoid these potentially severe problems.

Maintaining proper electrolyte balance isn’t just for athletes who’ve suffered from debilitating muscle cramps or pulled muscles. You need to provide your body with an adequate supply of electrolytes to maintain specific bodily functions, so you can perform at your peak. To ensure peak performance, you need electrolytes sending a steady stream of energy to all the cells in your body, to keep your body performing smoothly, without interruption or decreased power. No serious athlete should wait until the final signs of severe electrolyte depletion before replenishing electrolytes. You need to get out in front of electrolyte loss and maintain it before it becomes a performance problem.

An Individual Sweat Test is one of the simplest ways to determine the concentration of electrolytes in your sweat, allowing you to customize your replenishment program.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Are All Electrolytes Created Equal?

Not All Electrolytes are Created Equal

Electrolytes are salts that help your body perform essential functions. As you sweat, your body tries to naturally regulate the balance of electrolytes. In some cases, your body does this very well. For instance, when you train or compete, your muscle fibers break down. When your muscle fibers break down, potassium is released into the body. Your body does this very efficiently, even at modest levels of activity. So, potassium is not an electrolyte you need to worry about replenishing. Your body does that for you. Many sport drinks and endurance products contain potassium, which is one of many ingredients you don’t need, even for endurance athletes and muscle crampers. In fact, abnormally elevated blood potassium (hyperkalemia) can be very dangerous, even fatal. We recommend avoiding any supplementation of potassium.

Your body is less efficient at balancing other electrolytes like sodium (Na+), chloride (Cl-), and magnesium (Mg+). These electrolytes can quickly be depleted as you train or compete, leading to performance issues or muscle cramping. These electrolytes are key ingredients in LEVELEN™, in just the right amounts for you. This ensures you maintain your peak performance by managing the most essential electrolytes, while avoiding those which are less beneficial, or even harmful.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

How Much Does Sweat Vary Between Athletes?

SWEAT RATE

The amount of sweat volume (rate of fluids lost) can vary greatly from one athlete to another, over a 37-fold difference. While sweat rate is slightly correlated to size (larger athletes typically sweat more) and gender (males sweat more than females), two athletes of similar size and gender can have very different sweat volumes. That is why sweat testing is critical for determining your exact fluid and electrolyte replenishment needs to maintain peak performance.

Sweat volume may vary considerably between sports, as well as between players in the same sport. When assessing sweat volume between runners and football players in identical conditions, our research revealed that football player sweat losses were over 9 liters per day compared to 3 liters per day for runners.

From the thousands of athletes tested, we have seen the following sweat rates:

AVERAGE: 1.68 liters per hour
MIN: 0.18 liters per hour
MAX: 6.70 liters per hour

ELECTROLYTE LOSSES

The graph below highlights electrolyte loss data from our research with the Philadelphia Flyers and the Philadelphia Eagles. As you can see, there was a dramatic variance in the overall amount of electrolytes lost (in this case sodium) from one athlete to another. Measured in milligrams per hour, there was over a 100-fold difference in electrolytes lost between athletes tested in our research.

Print

From athlete to athlete, individual electrolyte loss varies much more than fluid loss. As electrolyte depletion begins, there can be a gradual and subtle loss of performance. As electrolyte depletion becomes more extreme, debilitating muscle cramps can suddenly set in. For every athlete, the point at which performance is impaired or muscle cramps start is different. Guesswork is not the answer for maintaining your electrolyte balance. One-size-fits-all electrolyte solutions are not the key to your peak performance.
Sweat testing is the only way to know exactly what you need, and The LEVELEN ERS™ is the only integrated solution of testing and LEVELEN™ electrolyte replenishment products customized to your individual needs.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Does My Sweat Profile Change? How Often Should I Test?

Year over year: If you were tested today, and the same time last year…our studies indicate your results would be the same. The test is very accurate and allows for precise recommendations of your customized electrolyte replenishment solution. However, if your diet, weight, medications or level of activity change dramatically, this could affect your sweat composition. We recommend re-testing annually to ensure accurate recommendations of LEVELEN products.

Season to season: As the weather warms and cools, your body “acclimates” to new temperatures and humidity changes. In cooler weather, you typically sweat less with a higher concentration of electrolytes lost. In warmer weather, you tend to sweat more with a lower concentration of electrolytes. If you are a multi-season or multi-sport athlete, it is a good idea to perform several sweat tests per year to ensure you are replenishing the correct amount of electrolytes, based on the sport and/or weather conditions. For the serious athlete, this “fine tuning” dials in your hydration specifically to a workout, providing you with that extra edge.

Buy Multiple Sweat Tests (at a discount) to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Sweat Testing Questions

What is a Simulated Sweat Test? How Does LEVELEN’s Test Differ?

Stimulated sweat tests are static tests that are medically approved for detecting Cystic Fibrosis. The problem with this method, in terms of athletic performance, is that the sweat composition generated by an artificial stimulus differs greatly from a true sample taken during physical activity. Eccrine sweat glands are stimulated when the body is hot (physical activity), and sweat produced by eccrine glands will have different electrolyte levels from aprocrine glands. Numerous studies have shown that this stimulated method results in elevated levels of electrolyte concentration, and not representative of true thermal sweating. These studies also measure chloride concentrations, and then estimate sodium and overall electrolyte levels.

We analyze each electrolyte independently, for a more accurate measure, rather than estimating anything. Even though Chloride and Sodium levels tend to correlate, we have seen many instances when the two differ greatly on our scale. This would result in grossly incorrect measurements from the stimulated sweat test.

We recommend you test in an environment similar to your normal training/competition conditions. We then customize your hydration & electrolyte replenishment program to address this authentic specific sweat profile, and not one from stimulated sweat.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Why Should I Get A Sweat Test?

Based on over 15 years of research, and data on thousands of athletes across numerous sports, athletes simply don’t sweat the same. General hydration guidelines are just that, general, and aren’t useful for helping the athlete determine their unique fluid and electrolyte needs. Your Sweat Profile is uniquely yours, and could differ dramatically from another (over a hundred fold), even if they have a similar diet, body type, size, etc. There are no metrics that can accurately predict what your hydration needs are, which is why a Sweat Test is so essential for those seeking to optimize their performance and minimize heat-related illnesses like heat exhaustion, hyponatremia, and muscle cramping.

Our Testing Kit is self-administered, and provides us enough information to determine your unique hydration and electrolyte needs, down to the milligram.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

My Blood Test says I’m “normal”, why do I need a Sweat Test?

When it comes to electrolytes, your body is very good at regulating your levels. Usually within an hour, your sodium and chloride levels will have returned to normal levels, even after suffering muscle cramps during competition. Our sweat test determines what your real-time losses will be, so we can scientifically replenish based on your specific needs and assure your levels will never drop below normal during an event. A blood test does not provide the real-time information needed to determine an individual’s specific fluid and electrolyte needs.

For example, your blood sodium levels should be 135 mmol/L to 145 mmol/L. Whether you are a muscle cramper or not, your blood tests will most likely be within this range.

How Much Does Sweat Vary Between Athletes?

SWEAT RATE

The amount of sweat volume (rate of fluids lost) can vary greatly from one athlete to another, over a 37-fold difference. While sweat rate is slightly correlated to size (larger athletes typically sweat more) and gender (males sweat more than females), two athletes of similar size and gender can have very different sweat volumes. That is why sweat testing is critical for determining your exact fluid and electrolyte replenishment needs to maintain peak performance.

Sweat volume may vary considerably between sports, as well as between players in the same sport. When assessing sweat volume between runners and football players in identical conditions, our research revealed that football player sweat losses were over 9 liters per day compared to 3 liters per day for runners.

From the thousands of athletes tested, we have seen the following sweat rates:

AVERAGE: 1.68 liters per hour
MIN: 0.18 liters per hour
MAX: 6.70 liters per hour

ELECTROLYTE LOSSES

The graph below highlights electrolyte loss data from our research with the Philadelphia Flyers and the Philadelphia Eagles. As you can see, there was a dramatic variance in the overall amount of electrolytes lost (in this case sodium) from one athlete to another. Measured in milligrams per hour, there was over a 100-fold difference in electrolytes lost between athletes tested in our research.

Print

From athlete to athlete, individual electrolyte loss varies much more than fluid loss. As electrolyte depletion begins, there can be a gradual and subtle loss of performance. As electrolyte depletion becomes more extreme, debilitating muscle cramps can suddenly set in. For every athlete, the point at which performance is impaired or muscle cramps start is different. Guesswork is not the answer for maintaining your electrolyte balance. One-size-fits-all electrolyte solutions are not the key to your peak performance.
Sweat testing is the only way to know exactly what you need, and The LEVELEN ERS™ is the only integrated solution of testing and LEVELEN™ electrolyte replenishment products customized to your individual needs.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Does My Sweat Profile Change? How Often Should I Test?

Year over year: If you were tested today, and the same time last year…our studies indicate your results would be the same. The test is very accurate and allows for precise recommendations of your customized electrolyte replenishment solution. However, if your diet, weight, medications or level of activity change dramatically, this could affect your sweat composition. We recommend re-testing annually to ensure accurate recommendations of LEVELEN products.

Season to season: As the weather warms and cools, your body “acclimates” to new temperatures and humidity changes. In cooler weather, you typically sweat less with a higher concentration of electrolytes lost. In warmer weather, you tend to sweat more with a lower concentration of electrolytes. If you are a multi-season or multi-sport athlete, it is a good idea to perform several sweat tests per year to ensure you are replenishing the correct amount of electrolytes, based on the sport and/or weather conditions. For the serious athlete, this “fine tuning” dials in your hydration specifically to a workout, providing you with that extra edge.

Buy Multiple Sweat Tests (at a discount) to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

How Do I Perform a Sweat Test?

Just like elite professional & collegiate teams and athletes, you can now determine your unique sweat profile (sweat rate & electrolyte loss), and end the electrolyte replenishment guessing game. Our LEVELEN Electrolyte Replenishment System (ERS™) is the only integrated solution of sweat testing and electrolyte replenishment products customized to your needs.

The video below details how to perform a self-administered sweat test. Once we receive your test sample and analyze it, you will receive a detailed Sweat Profile Report and Dashboard. This includes an hourly hydration strategy and specific recommendations of LEVELEN products that are customized for your specific electrolyte replenishment needs.

 

 

SWEAT TESTING Instructions (CrossFit-Specific Instructions)

Important: During this test, consume fluids as you normally do for a workout of typical intensity and duration. You need to record the precise amount of fluid consumed during the full duration of your workout (between your pre- and post-workout weighings). For the most representative results, you should perform the sweat test while training in the activity, intensity, and environmental conditions representative of the competition you are training for (e.g. Marathon training by running on a hot day).

  1. arm_patchClean the outside of your forearm below the elbow (part facing UP when palm is turned DOWN) with alcohol swab and allow to dry. (see figure)
  2. Apply “sweat patch” to cleaned area outside of your forearm just prior to the workout.
  3. Empty bladder and weigh yourself (wearing no/minimal clothing), noting weight on information card. Note workout conditions on information card (temperature and humidity, if possible).REMEMBER: From this point until you record your post-workout weight, you must track how much fluid you consume (in ounces or milliliters). Ideally, don’t consume any fluids during your workout, or drink as little as possible.
  4. Begin your workout.
  5. It is best to remove the sweat patch between 30 and 40 minutes after your workout begins, or when the patch is fully saturated. Peel open the sweat patch and remove the gauze only with the provided tweezers to avoid touching the sample.
  6. Place the gauze only into the plastic vial, close lid so it “snaps” securely, and place contents into clear bag and seal. Continue your workout.
  7. After your workout, wipe off sweat and weigh yourself again (wearing minimal or no clothing). Note weight, test duration and intensity, and fluids consumed, if any, on the information card.
  8. Mail the completed information card & sweat sample back to us in the provided return mailer. In case your sample gets lost in the mail, take a picture of the tracking label.

What Do You Test For?

The Sweat Test measures your sweat volume (sweat rate) and sweat composition (electrolyte concentrations). Both measurements are instrumental in understanding how your body reacts to exertion and what specific replenishment you need to maintain proper electrolyte balance under physical stress, as well as preventing heat-related illness.

Electrolytes measured: Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+), Chloride (Cl-)

Based on your results, we determine the amount of electrolytes lost in sweat that need to be replenished, down to the milligram. No more trial-and-error guessing with your hydration.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Why Do I Need to Weigh Myself?

Sweat Rate. In order for us to get an accurate measurement of your sweat volume, it is important to weigh yourself both before and after the duration of your workout. Since sweat can be absorbed in your clothing, you should weigh yourself with minimal/no clothing. For the post-workout weight, please wipe off any sweat before weighing out. Your workout should ideally last for an hour.

The difference in your weight before & after your workout is the total amount of fluid lost in your sweat when you exercise. When you’re training or competing, you need to replenish those fluids. More importantly, what you drink must replenish the electrolytes lost to maintain peak performance and endurance. That is why we test for BOTH sweat volume & electrolytes lost as part of the Levelen ERS™.

For athletes that train & compete in various conditions, we recommend they keep a training log with the following information:

  1. Pre-weight
  2. Workout Duration
  3. Post-weight
  4. Amount of fluids consumed
  5. Workout Conditions (Temperature & Humidity)

This will allow us to determine your sweat rate for a given race condition.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

Why Do I Measure How Much I Drink?

Sweat Rate. In order for us to get an accurate measurement of your sweat volume, we need to determine how much your consume during your workout. The amount of fluid you consume will affect your post-workout weight.

During the test, if possible, we recommend not drinking any fluids. This allows us to attain the most accurate reading of your sweat rate/volume.  We recognize that hydration may make you more comfortable during your workout, and be necessary for longer or more intense workouts. If you do drink fluids during the test, carefully enter the exact amount that you consumed on the information card provided with your Sweat Test Kit. This allows us to accurate measure your Sweat Rate, and compensate for your fluid intake.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

How Do I Calculate My Sweat Rate?

To calculate your sweat loss per hour:

((Pre-Weight) – (Post-Weight) + (Fluids Consumed)) ÷ (Duration of Workout)

Example:

((73 kg) – (72 kg) + (0.5 liters)) ÷ (1 hour) = 1.5 liters per hour = Sweat Rate

Weights should be in kilograms, volume in liters, time in hours.

Since your sweat rate will vary based on conditions and acclimation, we recommend that endurance athletes, and other athletes that train & compete in various conditions, keep a training log with the following information:

  1. Pre-weight
  2. Workout Duration
  3. Post-weight
  4. Amount of fluids consumed
  5. Workout Conditions (Temperature & Humidity)

This will allow us to determine your sweat rate for a given race condition.

Buy an Individual Sweat Test to determine your body’s specific hydration & electrolyte needs, and take your performance to the next LEVEL.

How Long Do I Wear the Sweat Patch?

The Sweat Patch is used to collect a sample of your sweat, so we can analyze and determine the concentrations of various electrolytes in your sweat.

We highly recommend that you keep the patch on for at least 30 minutes, and up to a full hour. You should work out continuously the entire time.

Your test should be conducted in similar conditions as your usual workout (e.g., level of intensity, indoors vs. ourdoors). We recognize this may require you to wear the patch longer, for instance if you are a long distance runner or cyclist. Please try to plan your training routine so the test is as close to one hour as possible. This will help avoid your patch from becoming over-saturated with sweat.

LEVELEN/Consumption-related Questions

How do I use LEVELEN? Using Your Individual Sweat Profile

Once you complete your LEVELEN™ Sweat Test, you will receive an e-mail with your detailed Individual Sweat Profile and Dashboard.

Your Recommended Fluid & Electrolyte Replenishment Program will be based on your Individual Sweat Profile, the Duration of your workout/competition, and your specific Sport/Activity.

CONSUMPTION CALCULATION | CUSTOMIZE TO SPORT/ACTIVITY

Reading your Individual Sweat Profile

Your Individual Sweat Profile (e-mail) will include:

  • Sweat Rate (volume of sweat per hour)
  • Na+ Sodium Sweat Concentration
  • Na+ Sodium Loss per hour
  • K+ Potassium Sweat Concentration
  • Cl- Chloride Sweat Concentration
  • Cl- Chloride Loss per hour

Your Individual Dashboard (pdf) will include:

  • Sweat Rate (volume of sweat per hour)
  • Recommended Fluid Intake
  • Rate of Fluid & Electrolyte Losses
  • Recommended LEVELEN™ Level
  • Customized Hydration & Electrolyte Replenishment Recommendation

You will use this individualized information to calculate the amount of fluid intake you will need, and the amount of electrolytes you need to replace during your workout or competition.

LEVELEN™ Consumption Calculation:

Determine the Duration of your workout or competition.

Multiply Duration with Recommended Fluid Intake (on Dashboard. this is NOT your Sweat Rate. Your Recommended Fluid Intake is 60-70% of your Sweat Rate).

This is the TOTAL fluid and electrolyte deficit that will need to be replenished, to maintain optimal hydration and electrolyte balance. This total amount should be spread out before, during, and after your workout, depending on the type of activity (see below).


Example: Triathlon Training Session

Duration: 5 hour training session of swimming (1 hr), cycling (2 hrs), and running (2 hrs).
Your Recommended Fluid Intake is 1.2 liters per hour.
Based on your Electrolyte Loss, You should use LEVELEN™ Level 4
Total Fluid Replacement = 5 hrs x 1.2 L/hr = 6.0 L of LEVELEN™ Level 4

Consumption:

Before: Starting up to 24 hours prior to your workout, drink 35-40% of total = 2-2.5 liters of LEVELEN™ Level 4 over the 24 hours.

During: Drink 35-40% of total during cycling leg = 2-2.5 liters of LEVELEN™ Level 4 during the cycling and running sessions. If you do not have access to LEVELEN during the run, over concentrate 2-2.5 liters worth of LEVELEN Electrolyte Mix into your bike’s water bottle, and drink water during the run.

After: Drink 20-30% of total after your training session = 1-2 liters of LEVELEN™ Level 4.


Your Hydration & Electrolyte Replenishment Program will depend greatly on your Sport & Activity. See below for your recommendations based on sport.

FOOTBALL | HOCKEY/BASKETBALL/SOCCER/LAX | CYCLISTS | RUNNERS | TRIATHLETES | CROSSFIT/LIFTING

FOOTBALL

Begin Levelen™ preparation 24 hours prior to game time or an intense practice. For athletes whose Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results are “Severe,” begin Levelen™ preparation 36 hours prior to game time or an intense practice. Levelen™ preparation should be at the rate of fluid consumption noted in your hydration recommendations. While on the field, continue to consume available fluids (typically water) at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations. During two-a-day practices, or intense daily practices, your 24- or 36-hour Levelen™ preparation periods & practices may overlap. It is essential to maintain your electrolyte levels & remain hydrated during these continuous periods of intense physical activity. In this case, consume Levelen™ continuously throughout this period, at your recommended rate, until two-a-days or daily practices are complete. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

Hockey, Basketball, Soccer, Lacrosse

Begin Levelen™ preparation 24 hours prior to game time or an intense practice. For athletes whose Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results are “Severe,” begin Levelen™ preparation 36 hours prior to game time or an intense practice. Levelen™ preparation should be at the rate of fluid consumption noted in your hydration recommendations. While on the field, continue to consume available fluids (typically water) at the rate recommended in your test results. If it is possible to have your own Levelen™ supply on the bench, consume Levelen™ at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations. If not, continue to consume available fluids (typically water) at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.
During tournament play, playoffs or intense daily practices, your 24- or 36-hour Levelen™ preparation periods & physical activity may overlap. It is essential to maintain your electrolyte levels & remain hydrated during these continuous periods if intense physical activity. In this case, consume Levelen™ continuously throughout this period, at your recommended rate, until tournament, playoffs or intense daily practices are complete. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

Cyclists

Endurance sports typically involve extended periods of exertion for which consistent electrolyte management & hydration is essential. Cyclists have the advantage of being able to carry Levelen™ on the bike, which helps provide consistent electrolyte replenishment throughout your ride. Begin Levelen™ preparation 24 hours prior to competition or intense training. For athletes whose Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results are “Extreme,” begin Levelen™ preparation 36 hours prior to competition or intense training. Levelen™ preparation should be at the rate of fluid consumption noted in your hydration recommendations. To ensure optimal recovery after training or competition, continue consuming Levelen™ at your recommended rate for the following periods of time according to your reported Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results: Low/Mild 6 hours, Moderate/Significant 12 hours, Severe 24 hours.
For longer rides, carry individual servings of Levelen™ with you to mix with water mid-ride. If this is not possible, extend your Levelen preparation up to 36 hours prior to competition or intense training. Beyond 36 hours prior, Levelen™ will not provide any added benefit during training & competition. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

Distance Runners

Endurance sports typically involve extended periods of exertion for which consistent electrolyte management & hydration is essential. For longer distance runs (e.g., half-marathon distances or more), it can be difficult to supply yourself with anything other than water available on course. So, pre- & post-run preparation with Levelen™ is critical, at the rate of fluid consumption noted in your hydration recommendations. Begin preparation up to 36 hours prior to your longest events or intense training, and 24 hours prior to middle/short-distance events or intense training. Beyond 36 hours prior, Levelen™ will not provide any added benefit during training & competition. To ensure optimal recovery after training or competition, continue consuming Levelen™ at your recommended rate for the following periods of time according to your reported Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results: Low/ Mild 6 hours, Moderate/Significant 12 hours, Severe 24 hours. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

Triathletes

Endurance sports typically involve extended periods of exertion for which consistent electrolyte management & hydration is essential. While it can be difficult to supply yourself with anything other than water available on course, trialthletes can have their Levelen™ supply in transition areas and on the bike. But, pre- & post-event preparation with Levelen™ is still key to allow for the swim & run segments in these long distance events, and training. For longer events (e.g., Ironman, half-Ironman distances or more), it can be difficult to supply yourself with anything other than water available on course. So, pre- & post-run preparation with Levelen is critical, at the rate of fluid consumption noted in your hydration recommendations. Begin preparation up to 36 hours prior to your longest events or intense training, and 24 hours prior to middle/ short-distance events or intense training. Beyond 36 hours prior,
Levelen™ will not provide any added benefit during training & competition. To ensure optimal recovery after training or competition, continue consuming Levelen™ at your recommended rate for the following periods of time according to your reported Sweat Volume/Fluid Loss test results: Low/Mild 6 hours, Moderate/ Significant 12 hours, Severe 24 hours. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

CrossFit/Weight Lifting

CrossFit is an intense activity over a short period of time. Since the activity is so short, electrolyte management & hydration preparation is essential for optimal performance during the workout. Begin preparation up to 24 hours prior to your workout and consume Levelen™ through your workout. Add Levelen™ Neutral to your post-workout drink/protein shake for optimal electrolyte balance. As always, the goal is to continue rehydrating with available fluids at the rate noted in your hydration recommendations.

What Is In the LEVELEN Formulation?

LEVELEN™ Electrolyte Drink Mix is custom formulated with the right amount of electrolytes based on your specific needs, as determined by your Individual Sweat Test. The formulation includes healthy, all natural ingredients found through over 15 years of research to be valuable in enhancing performance, preventing muscle cramps, aiding recovery, and avoiding heat-related issues.

The most rapidly depleted electrolyte is sodium (Na+), and sodium loss is the primary electrolyte that we assess in our sweat testing. Chloride (Cl-) is lost at a highly predictable rate based on sodium loss. Magnesium (Mg+) is also essential for cell membrane transfer to ensure electrolytes and fluids are retained by your body. All of these electrolytes are key to our formulation. The formula avoids ingredients previously thought to be beneficial, but in reality are detrimental and even harmful when taken in large amounts, such as potassium.

We include Dextrose instead of sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup to facilitate electrolyte absorption and minimize gastro-intestinal distress associated with digestion of complex sugars.

LEVELEN™ ingredients are “clean” and suitable for athletes to take. None of our ingredients appear on the anti-doping list.

Gluten-free. Vegan-Friendly.

Individuals with Hypertension, Renal Disease or those taking Diuretics should consult with a physcian before taking LEVELEN™.

Additional Ingredient and Nutrition information can be found on the LEVELEN™ Electrolyte Mix page.

Why Doesn’t LEVELEN have Potassium?

Backed by over 15 years of clinical research with professional & collegiate sports teams, and data on over 2,500 athletes, we have found that the body is very efficient at regulating Potassium levels. Potassium is naturally released in your system during exercise. Contrary to popular belief,

Potassium deficiency does NOT lead to muscle cramping.

Even though we lose Potassium in our sweat, our body is naturally able to keep Potassium levels balanced, without supplementation.  In fact, supplementation can lead to abnormally elevated blood potassium (hyperkalemia), which is extremely dangerous and potentially fatal. We believe it is best to avoid Potassium supplementation, and therefore, do not include any in our formulations. The absence of Potassium does not affect our ability to prevent muscle cramping.

LEVELEN is clinically proven to:

  • Enhance Performance
  • Eliminate Exercise-Associated Muscle Cramping
  • Aid in Recovery after intense activity
  • Minimize Heat-related illnesses

Abstract: NFL Players Without Potassium Supplementation

Do I Need to Be Concerned About Consuming High Amounts of Salt?

Competitive athletes can lose excessive amounts of salt, but it is highly individualized. Knowing exactly what you lose is the key to successful replenishment and optimal performance. The LEVELEN ERS™ is designed to address your specific needs, so high salt intake should not be an issue. The goal is to replenish what you lose, rather than take on unnecessary sodium and other electrolytes. Without determining your specific electrolyte needs through a LEVELEN ERSTM Sweat Test, electrolyte replenishment remains a trial-and-error guessing game.

Can I Still Eat Salty Food When Using LEVELEN™?

In most cases, you should maintain your normal diet. Remember, the goal is to use LEVELEN™ immediately before and during training & competition to replenish electrolytes that you lose. So, at all other times when not training or competiting, you should maintain your normal, healthy diet.

There are some individuals whose test results will reveal the need for more extreme electrolyte supplementation, and for those, we will recommend increasing salt intake in their diet, in combination with using LEVELENTM Custom Electrolyte Mix during training/competition. These individuals should not be concerned about avoiding salt, particularly right before an intense workout.

 

Contact support@levelen.com with any other questions.

ABSTRACTS

ELECTROLYTE MANAGEMENT

Abstract; A Comparison of Blood Measures while NFL players are Experiencing EAMC and after IV Treatment when EAMC are Alleviated

Abstract; A Racial Comparison of Sweat Sodium Content in National Football League Players

Abstract; Blood and Urine Measures of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in NFL Rookies

Abstract; Blood Electrolyte, Plasma Volume and Body Weight Changes in Sodium Supplemented NFL Players During Pre-season

Abstract; Blood Electrolytes and Plasma Volume Changes in Two Groups of Sodium Supplemented NFL Players During Pre-season

Abstract; Blood Electrolytes in NFL Players while Experiencing EAMC compared to when they are not Cramping after Similar Practice Conditions

Abstract; Blood Electrolytes in NFL PLayers who Consume Gatorade with Gatorlytes during Preseason Practices Compared to Position and Sized Matched Players who Do Not

Abstract; Blood Measures at Baseline, while NFL players are Experiencing EAMC and after IV Treatment when EAMC have Resolved

Abstract; Blood, Urine and Body Mass Measures of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in NFL Players Supplemented with Sodium Chloride but no Potassium during Pre-season

Abstract; Blood, Urine and Body Weight Measures of Hydration Status in NFL Players Exposed to an Aggressive Hydration Program During Preseason Training

Abstract; Body Weight Changes and Urinary Indices of Fluid Balance in Sodium Supplemented NFL Players during Pre-season

Abstract; Changes in Blood Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in NFL Football Players During Pre-season Training

Abstract; Creatinine and Electrolyte Excretion in Sodium Supplemented NFL Players during Pre-season

Abstract; Dehydration and Fluid Replacement in NFL Players Practicing in Two Different Environmental Conditions

Abstract; Differences in Sweat Sodium Concentration in Professional Ice Hockey Players when Exercising in Two Different Environmental Conditions

Abstract; Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in NFL Players Individually Supplemented with 50% of their known Daily Sweat Sodium Losses during Preseason

Abstract; Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in NFL Players Individually Supplemented with 50% of their known Daily Sweat Sodium Losses using NaCl enhanced Fruit Juice during Preseason

Abstract; Hydration Status and Blood Measures in an NFL Lineman with Two Episodes of Muscle Cramping Treated with Intravenous Fluids

Abstract; No changes in Sweat Sodium Concentration on Consecutive Years in NFL Players Regardless of Sweat Rate or Environmental Conditions

Abstract; Professional Ice Hockey Players had Higher Sweat Sodium Concentrations in February compared to October

Abstract; Protein and Electrolyte Excretion in NFL PLayers before and after Practices in Full Pads versus Shorts and Shell

Abstract; Racial Differences in Sweat Sodium Concentration and Gross Sodium Losses in Professional and Collegiate Football Players During Practices in a Hot and Humid Environment

Abstract; Sweat Sodium Concentration in NFL Players during Dietary Sodium Supplementation compared to when they are not Supplemented

Abstract; Sweat Sodium Content and Sodium losses in NFL Players during Practices in Week 1 versus Week 3 of Preseason

Abstract; The Effect of Individual Sodium Replacement using Sodium Capsules Compared to No Sodium Capsules on Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in NFL Players during Pre-season

MUSCLE CRAMPING

Abstract; A Comparison of Blood Measures while NFL players are Experiencing EAMC and after IV Treatment when EAMC are Alleviated

Abstract; Blood Electrolytes in NFL Players while Experiencing EAMC compared to when they are not Cramping after Similar Practice Conditions

Abstract; Blood Measures at Baseline, while NFL players are Experiencing EAMC and after IV Treatment when EAMC have Resolved

Abstract; Hydration Status and Blood Measures in an NFL Lineman with Two Episodes of Muscle Cramping Treated with Intravenous Fluids

Abstract; NaCl Supplementation appeared to Prevent EAMC in an NFL Player with High Sweat Sodium Losses and a History of Cramping

Abstract; The Development of Cardio-Pulmonary Distress Subsequent to Treatment for Exercise Associated Muscle Cramping in a Football Athlete

SWEAT RATES

Abstract; Higher Sweat Rates in White compared to Black NFL Players matched by Body Size but no differences in sweat sodium

Abstract; Sweat rate and core temperature responses to dehydration induced experimentally versus during actual pre-season practice in college football players

Abstract; Sweat Rates and Fluid Turnover in Professional Football Linemen during Practices in Hot versus Cool Conditions

Abstract; Sweat rates and fluid turnover in professional football players; A comparison of NFL linemen versus backs

Abstract; Sweat Rates and Fluid Turnover in Professional versus Division II College Football Players during their respective Pre-season Practices

Abstract; The relationship between Core Temperature, Percent Dehydration and Sweat Rates in NFL players during preseason practices

THERMOREGULATION

Abstract; Ice Slushie Ingestion Decreases Core Body Temperature in Male Football Players Prior to a Standard Pre-season Practice

Abstract; Sodium Depleted Heat Exhaustion in a Football Player Taking Blood Pressure Medication

Abstract; Sweat rate and core temperature responses to dehydration induced experimentally versus during actual pre-season practice in college football players

Abstract; The relationship between Core Temperature, Percent Dehydration and Sweat Rates in NFL players during preseason practices

PUBLICATIONS

Changes-in-Blood-Electrolytes-and-Plasma-Volume-in-National-Football-League-Players-DuringChanges in Blood Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in National Football League Players During Preseason Training Camp

Core Temperature and Percentage of Dehydration in Professional Football Linemen and Backs During Preseason Practice

Fluid Consumption and Sweating in National Football League and College Football Players With Different Access to Fluids During Practice

Thermal Responses in Football and Cross-country Athletes During Their Respective Practices in a Hot Environment

Higher Sweat Rates in White compared to Black NFL Players Matched by Body Size and Position but No Differences in Sweat Sodium

Hydration and Core Temperature in a Football Player During Preseason; A Case Study

Hydration Status in College Football Players During Consecutive Days of Twice-a-Day Preseason Practices

Sweat Rates and Fluid Turnover in Professional Football Players; A Comparison of NFL Linemen and Backs

Sweat Rates, Sweat Sodium Concentrations and Sodium Losses in 3 Groups of NFL Players

PRESENTATIONS

Pro Hockey Athletic Trainer Society (PHATS) June, 2012

National Athletic Trainer Association (NATA), June 2012

NaCl Supplementation Appeared to Prevent EAMC in NFL Player with High Sweat Sodium Losses and a History of Cramping

Regimented Sodium Replacement vs. Ad Lib Consumption of High Sodium Fluids in NFL Players; NATA June, 2012

3 Chart Sweat Rate & Sodium Concentration Data Summary NFL + NHL Combined

IV versus Oral Sodium Supplementation